NOWADAYS analytical prose passages are a common part of the English exams: GCSE and IGCSE; SAT, ACT, or AP English.  But what are they? What do students have to know and master? How do students tackle questions on prose passages?

I have compiled a dossier for you here . . .  so, please get yourself a cup of coffee and enjoy the cruise . . .

PROSE is simply writing or speech that is not poetry. Prose is the most common form of writing. It is not restricted by rhythm or dialogue, and it most closely resembles everyday speech. It is usually straightforward, and may utilize figurative language, dialogue, characters, and imagery.

quote-chalk-think-words.jpgProse writing is often divided into two primary categories: Fiction and Non-Fiction

  1. Fictional Prose is narrative writing that originates from the author’s imagination. It is designed to entertain, but it can also inspire, inform, or persuade.

Primary sub-genres of fiction include a novel, novella (a short novel or long short story), and short story.

  1. Nonfictional Prose is writing that is based on true events, people, places, and facts. It is designed to inform, and sometimes to entertain.

Primary sub-genres of nonfiction include autobiography and biography; essays, diaries and journals as well as narrative non-fiction.

  1. Heroic Prose is writing based on the formulaic expressions found in oral traditions, eg: myths and legends as well as fables.

ADDITIONALLY, prose can be . . . .

  • Narrative writing which has a storyline and characters. It is often told chronologically.
  • Expository writing denotes writing that explains or explores particular topics and themes. Expository writing differs from narrative writing because it does not necessarily tell a story.
  • Descriptive writing uses detail, such as the five senses, to discuss a topic in depth. This form of writing is often used in conjunction with narrative, expository, or persuasive writing.
  • Persuasive writing attempts to convince the audience of the merits or disadvantages of the topic.

Something inherent in prose is a sense of style, or how speakers and writers communicate their meanings. Prose style is specific to a particular work, author, or genre. Thus, for any analysis done on a piece of prose there are some literary works to be engaged in.

STRUCTURE is also key to prose writing and commonly asked in questions. Structure, or form, is the arrangement of story elements according to purpose, style and genre. While the plot is the events in the story itself, which are heavily affected by character, setting and theme, the structure, on the other hand, is how these elements are presented to the reader.


Commonly, the term Literary Devices refers to the typical structures used by writers in their works to convey their message(s) in a simple manner to their readers.  When employed properly, the different literary devices help readers to appreciate, interpret and analyze a literary work.

Literary Devices have two aspects. They can be treated as either Literary Elements or Literary Techniques. It will be convenient to define them separately.


Literary Elements have an inherent existence in literary piece and are extensively employed by writers to develop a literary piece e.g. plot, setting, narrative structure, characters, mood, theme, moral etc. Writers simply cannot create his desired work without including Literary Elements in a thoroughly professional manner.


  • PLOT: It is the logical sequence of events that develops a story. There are five basic elements to the plot:
    • Exposition – Often before the plot begins, a section of exposition is provided, which is the introduction that presents the background information to help readers understand the situation of the story.
    • Rising action – This is the series of struggles (conflicts and complications) that builds a story toward its climax. The conflicts and complications within a story are what creates the rising action.
    • Climax – This is the point of greatest intensity, interest, or suspense in a narrative which will somehow determine the outcome of the story. In drama, the climax is also identified with the terms crisis and/or turning point. It’s the point of the story that “changes everything.”
    • Falling action – This is the part of the story that shows the “working out” of the action that occurred during the story’s climax.   (Certain issues/ happenings must be resolved (worked out) to reach a resolution).
    • Resolution – The resolution is also called the denouement. This is the portion of the story where the problem is somehow resolved. It follows after the climax and falling action and is intended to bring the story to a satisfactory end/close.
  • SETTING: It refers to the time and place in which a story takes place. This is the time and place of the action of a story. Setting can be of great importance in establishing not only the physical background, but also in creating the atmosphere/mood of the story (tension, suspense, peacefulness, etc.) Setting can include time (minute/hour, year, month, decade, etc.), weather (season, literal weather, etc.), places (planets, countries, cities, buildings, homes, stores, etc.) or any other thing that helps set the background.
  • CHARACTERIZATION This is the personality a character displays as well as the means by which an author reveals that personality. Characters in a story can be one of two types. They can be…
    • Static: they remain the same throughout the entire story.
    • Dynamic: they change in some important way during the                    course of the story.

Also…        Rounded = a developed character (we get to know them)

    • Flat = an undeveloped character (we never get to know them)

Stories often include a protagonist and an antagonist.

    • Protagonist:  This is the chief character in a work on whom our interest centers. This term is preferable over the terms hero or heroine because a protagonist can sometimes include characters who might be, for example, villainous or weak (but characters whom we are still interested in or concerned about regardless of their flaws in character).
    • Foil: This is a character that has characteristics that oppose another character, usually the protagonist. The foil character may be completely opposite to the protagonist, or very similar with one key difference. The foil character is used to highlight some particular quality or qualities of the main character.
    • Antagonist: This is the character or force which opposes (literally “wrestles”) the main character; therefore, if the protagonist is pitted against an important opponent, that opponent is called the antagonist.
  • POINT OF VIEW: This is the angle or position from which the story is told the narrative view. There are two basic points of view for storytelling: the first-person point of view and the third-person point of view.
    • First-person: Through this view, the story is told by one of the characters in his or her own words by using “I.” First-person point of view is always considered to be a limited point of view since the reader is told only what one specific character knows and observes.
    • Second -person: Even less common is a story narrated with “you.” This is a very difficult point of view to sustain, as the reader must identify with the “you”, or it must be clear that the “you” character is, in fact, a way for the narrator to reflect back on his or her own actions.
    • Third person: Through this view, the story is told by someone outside of the story itself by using “he” or “she.” The third-person narrator may be working from an omniscient view or a limited omniscient view.
    • Omniscient: This narrator is an all-knowing observer who can describe all the characters’ actions, thoughts, and feelings.
    • Limited omniscient: This is a storyteller who shares the thoughts and feelings of only one particular character or a select group of characters (clearly lacking or failing to share information about other characters).

SPEECH PATTERNS – These forms include:

    • Dialogue – where characters of a narrative speak to one another.
    • Monologue – delivered by one character to other characters, or at least overheard by other characters if delivered to the audience.
    • Interior monologue – a character’s thoughts that addresses the character itself.
    • Soliloquy – A speech delivered alone by one character without any other characters overhearing.
    • Aside – A speech delivered directly to the audience without any other characters overhearing, the aside is a very short observation, whereas a soliloquy is a longer explanation of the character’s thoughts.
    • Stream Of Consciousness – A method of narration that describes in words the flow of thoughts in the mind of a character. The technique aspires to give readers the impression of being inside the mind of the character. Therefore, the internal view of the mind of the character sheds light on plot and motivation in the novel.
    • Apostrophe – A character breaks off from addressing one character to address a third party who may either be present or absent in the scene, or even to an inanimate object or intangible concept.

CONFLICT: It is an issue in a narrative around which the whole story revolves. It is also the struggle between two opposing forces or characters in a story that triggers action. Conflict can be internal or external.

    • Internal Conflict =   Man vs. Self: This is the conflict that takes place within an individual (an inner battle of conscience).
    • External Conflict = This is an individual’s struggle against something outside of themselves. There are five basic types of external
  • man vs. man (or group of people)
  • man vs. society
  • man vs. nature/animal
  • man vs. supernatural
  • man vs. fate or destiny conflict…

Conflicts are also known as complications. When you read, keep in mind that there may be a single conflict that is uncomplicated or  easy to recognize in the story or there may be several, more subtle conflicts involved.

MOOD AND TONE: A general atmosphere of a narrative. Mood is the feeling a text arouses and creates in the reader/ audience (such as happiness, anger, sadness, depression, joy, etc.). It is the attitude of the audience/reader toward the subject matter he or she is reading. Tone is the overall feeling, or effect, created by a writer’s use of words. Tone reveals the author’s attitude toward his own subject matter and the audience.

So . . . mood is the attitude of the audience/reader toward the particular subject matter he or she is reading AND tone is the author’s apparent attitude toward his own subject matter and/or the audience

THEME: It is central idea or concept of a story – the basic meaning of a literary work. It is a statement about life…specifically “the human condition”. Themes are UNIVERSAL truths about life.

Because they are universal, they stand the test of time, and themes are repeated over-and-over in books, movies, songs, etc (and then they become what’s called a motif). Theme is rarely a moral/lesson (it is usually just a statement about life that we know/accept to be true).

MOTIF: a narrative element with symbolic meaning that repeats throughout, eg: Martin Luther King Jr. used the motif of “I have a dream” to tie together different ideas such as the historic language of the United States of America’s “Declaration of Independence” with the more concrete images of people who once were at odds sitting down together.


Literary Techniques, on the contrary, are structures usually a word or phrases in literary texts that writers employ to achieve not merely artistic ends but also for readers to gain a greater understanding and appreciation of their literary works. Examples are:  metaphor, simile, alliteration, hyperbole, allegory etc. In contrast to Literary Elements, Literary Techniques are not unavoidable aspect of literary works.

To have a better understanding of Literary Devices, it is useful to look at their definition and examples: Techniques, by their nature, are used by writers as an attempt to make the reader think in a certain way. These techniques can be used to intrigue, inspire, persuade or simply convey information to the reader.


IMAGERY: It is the use of figurative language to create visual representations of actions, objects and ideas in our mind in such a way that they appeal to our physical senses. For example: The room was dark and gloomy. -The words “dark” and “gloomy” are visual images. The river was roaring in the mountains. – The word “roaring” appeals to our sense of hearing.

SIMILE AND METAPHOR: Both compare two distinct objects and draws similarity between them. The difference is that Simile uses “as” or “like” and Metaphor does not. For example: My love is like a red red rose” (Simile); He is an old fox very cunning. (Metaphor)

HYPERBOLE: It is deliberate exaggeration of actions and ideas for the sake of emphasis, eg: I have got a million issues to look after!

PERSONIFICATION: It gives a thing, an idea or an animal human qualities, eg: Have you see my new car? She is a real beauty!

ALLITERATION: It refers to the same consonant sounds in words coming together. For example: Better butter always makes the batter better.

ONOMATOPOEIA: words that sound a little like they mean, eg: The autumn leaves and twigs cracked and crunched underfoot.

ALLEGORY: It is a literary technique in which an abstract idea is given a form of characters, actions or events. For example: “Animal Farm”, written by George Orwell, is an example of allegory using the actions of animals on a farm to represent the overthrow of the last of the Russian Tsar Nicholas II In addition, the actions of the animals on the farm are used to expose the greed and corruption of the Revolution.

IRONY: It is use of the words in such a way in which the intended meaning is completely opposite to their literal meaning. For example: So nice of you to break my new PSP!

  • Situational Irony: A situation in which the outcome is very different than what was expected.
  • Dramatic Irony: Part of a piece of literature in which the reader or audience member has more information than the character(s) and there is thus incongruity between what the characters expect and what the audience knows to be true.
  • Verbal Irony: It occurs when a speaker means or feels something very different from what he or she says, often involving sarcasm.

METAPHOR – a descriptive technique that names a person, thing or action as something else, eg: The circus was a magnet for the children.

EMOTIVE LANGUAGE – language intended to create an emotional response, eg: A heart-breaking aroma of death filled the air as he surveyed the devastation and destruction that had befallen them all

OXYMORON – a phrase combining two or more contradictory terms, eg: There was a deafening silence

ANECDOTE – a very short story that is usually interesting or amusing, and concerns real people and real incidents. Anecdotes are often humorous, but also often impart a deeper truth.

PATHETIC FALLACY – a type of personification where emotions are given to a setting, an object or the weather, eg: The clouds crowded together suspiciously overhead as the sky darkened.

STATISTICS and FIGURES – factual data used in a persuasive way, eg: About 80% of people agreed that this would change their community for the better.

RHETORICAL – A question asked just for effect with no answer expected.

HYPOPHORA – a figure of speech in which the speaker both asks a question and immediately answers it.

FLASHBACK – an occurrence in which a character remembers an earlier event that happened before the current point of the story.

FORESHADOWING – the author gives clues about events that will happen later in the story. Often these clues are fairly subtle so that they can only be noticed or fully understood upon a second reading.

ARCHETYPE – also known as universal symbol maybe a character, a theme, a symbol or even a setting or a situation that seems to represent such universal patterns of human nature.

BILDUNGSROMAN is a coming-of-age story, which focuses on a narrative of a young adult growing morally and psychologically into an adult. Thus, a bildungsroman is also sometimes called a novel of formation or novel of education. The most important element of a bildungsroman is the character development that the young adult undergoes through the course of the narrative.

SATIRE is a genre of literature that uses wit for the purpose of social criticism poking fun at some failing of human behavior. Satire ridicules problems in society, government, businesses, and individuals in order to bring attention to certain follies, vices, and abuses, as well as to lead to improvements. It can either be gentle, amusing, and light-hearted or be biting, bitter, and even savage.

ANTICLIMAX – a conclusion that is unsatisfying because is does not meet the expectations that the narrative has been building toward.

HUBRIS – extreme pride and arrogance shown by a character that ultimately brings about his downfall. A character suffering from Hubris tries to cross normal human limits and violates moral codes.

JUXTAPOSITION – to place two concepts, characters, ideas, or places near or next to each other so that the reader will compare and contrast them.

ANTITHESIS – the use of contrasting concepts, words, or sentences within parallel grammatical structures.

Antithesis is very similar to juxtaposition, as juxtaposition also sets two different things close to each other to emphasize the difference between them. However, juxtaposition does not necessarily deal with completely opposite ideas

PARALLELISM – the usage of repeating words and forms to give pattern and rhythm to a passage in literature.

SYMBOLISM – the use of symbols to signify ideas and qualities, by giving them symbolic meanings that are different from their literal sense. Generally, it is an object representing another, to give an entirely different meaning that is much deeper and more significant.

TAUTOLOGY – states the same thing twice in slightly different wording, or adds redundant and unnecessary words.

UTOPIA – an illusionary place that projects the notion of a perfect society to the reader.

DYSTOPIA – a community or society that is undesirable or frightening.

POETIC JUSTICE – an ideal form of justice in which the good characters are rewarded and the bad characters are punished by an ironic twist of their fate.

CARICATURE – an exaggerated description used to create a silly or comic effect.

TRIPLES – three points to support an argument. Safer streets means comfort, reassurance and peace of mind for you, your family and your friends.

Function of Literary Devices

In general, the literary devices are a collection of universal artistic structures that are so typical of all works of literature frequently employed by the writers to give meanings and a logical framework to their works through language.  When such works are read by readers, they ultimately recognize and appreciate them -this is the ANALYSIS part required of High School students.

They not only beautify the piece of literature but also give deeper meanings to it, testing the very understanding of the readers along with providing them enjoyment of reading. Besides, they help motivating readers’ imagination to visualize the characters and scenes more clearly.

Only through practice will you get things right.


Good luck in your endeavours.

As of old: Be EMPOWERED and EXCEL!



One secondary school teacher once said: ‘Make sure expectations are consistent and reinforced by all – I am fed up of being the disliked teacher because I follow school expectations and others don’t – this has happened in every school I’ve worked in.’

What Are Teachers Saying About Behavior Management?

According to an OfSTED (Office for Standards in Education based in the UK) survey of 2014, of teachers themselves, an average secondary school might contain five or six teachers who lose at least 10 minutes of learning time per lesson as they struggle to maintain good order.

Problems range from:

  • Hard-working teachers having their efforts to maintain discipline undermined by the inconsistent approach of other teaching staff to behavior management.
  • Inconsistency in applying behaviour policies annoy students and parents.
  • Some teachers lack the skills to enforce consistently high standards of behavior management.  Too often, teachers complained that their senior leaders did not assert their authority.
  • In some schools, teachers blur the boundaries between friendliness and familiarity, for example, by allowing the use of their first names.
  • In certain circumstances, students too often, demonstrate a lack of respect for staff by talking across them or taking too long to respond to instructions.
  • Enthusiasm and lack of self-control – The lack of awareness among students that interrupting is inappropriate.
  • Teachers’ confidence is sometimes undermined by fear of discussing problems with senior staff, who, instead of supporting the teachers, blame them when poor behaviour is brought up to the leadership team.
  • Sending mixed messages -Students can be observed behaving impeccably in one lesson with different teachers and worse off in another because rules of behaviour varied according to the teacher.

Broadly, one in twelf secondary teachers said that more than 10 minutes of learning was lost per hour.

pexels-photo-416322.jpegNow that we have reflected on where the problems lie with inappropriate behaviour, let’s think about our relationships, as teachers, with our students.

What Type Of Teacher Are You?

There are SIX types of teachers when it comes to behavior management in the classroom. Which of the following best describes your relationships with students?


  • The teacher has strong sense of purpose in pursuing clear goals for learning and for the class.
  • The teacher shows leadership qualities.
  • The teacher tends to guide and control.
  • The teacher is prepared to discipline unapologetically.

Too dominant/assertive

  • The teacher is too controlling.
  • The teacher shows lack of concern for students.
  • The teacher-students relationship is damaged.


  • The teacher shows great concern for the needs and opinions of students.
  • The teacher is helpful and friendly.
  • The teacher avoids strife and seeks consensus.
  • The teacher enjoys working together with students.

Too cooperative/collaborative

  • The teacher is too understanding and accepting of apologies.
  • The teacher waits for students to be ready and lets students dictate.
  • The teacher is too keen to be accepted by students.
  • The teacher passes responsibility completely to students.
  • The teacher abdicates responsibility and leadership.


  • The teacher treats students as the enemy.
  • The teacher expresses anger and irritation.
  • The teacher needs to ’win’ if there is a disagreement between teacher and pupil.
  • The teacher sees the classroom as a battleground.


  • The teacher lacks clarity of purpose.
  • The teacher keeps a low profile.
  • The teacher tends to submit to the will of the class.
  • The teacher is entirely unassertive, rather glum and apologetic.
  • The teacher expects difficulties.

RESEARCH has found that the most effective teachers find a balance between dominance and cooperation. We will look at how you can improve these areas when we look at strategies to improve behaviour.

Robert Marzano’s (2003) findings from his study of over 100 reports on classroom management, including 134 experiments designed to fInd the most successful classroom strategies as well as finding that pupils prefer the dominant cooperative style mix twice as much as the purely cooperative style or indeed any other style .

Behaviour Improvement

There are, of course, many strategies designed to improve behaviour, but remember it is not solely your responsibility to do so.

Any strategy you choose to use will only work, if it is underpinned by the
following principles:

  • They are clear and robust.
  • They follow behaviour and discipline systems and a framework of
    consequences, which are understood and contributed to by teachers and students.
  • There is a whole school approach.
  • There is a focus on positive recognition of appropriate behavior.
  • Positive relationships are developed and maintained.
  • The school works in partnership with agencies and stakeholders, including
  • There is an awareness of the adults’ emotional responses to inappropriate behavior.

pexels-photo.jpgFour Basics To Improving Behaviour

There are four basic approaches, which research has found to improve classroom behaviour:

1.  Rules and procedure
2. Teacher-pupil/student relationships
3. Disciplinary interventions
4. Mental set

Think back to how you said you responded to inappropriate behavior and consider these two questions:

  • Is there anything you may want to change or improve?
  • Could a small change have a dramatic effect?

You are, like many other teachers, concerned about behaviour, but think about it this way:

If you keep doing what you are doing, you will keep getting the same responses.

1. Rules And Procedures

Classrooms become more orderly places when rules are clearly stated and
perform even better when rules have been negotiated, discussed and justified.

Here are 10 steps to improving rules and procedures:

1. Create rules and express them positively. It shouldn’t just be a list of don’ts.
2. Justify rules and rehearse them! “Because I say so” is not a persuasive justification.
3. Discuss rules with the class. Explain their purpose, i.e. to improve learning.
4. Negotiate with the students to get commitment. Ask for suggestions and
remember to justify and compromise. Make posters and get them to sign up!
5. Regularly review the rules together.
6. Encourage students to devise rules and take ownership of them.
7. Remind students of any relevant rules before a potentially disruptive activity or if you are aware of “something brewing”. This kind of response can drastically reduce inappropriate behavior.
8. Encourage and develop team working (team rules for success).

9. Regularly get students to self-assess their own behaviour set against the

2. Teacher-Pupil/Student Relationships

Think about the style of relationship you have with your students. Your relationship will, of course, depend on the class or group, but a balance between a dominant and cooperative style is regarded as the most effective way to improve classroom management.

How do you increase your dominance and assertiveness?

Dominance and assertiveness is about effective leadership, having a clear path
to learning goals and good behaviour, pursued with vigour and enthusiasm. It should also be student-centred.

Here are a number of tips to increase dominance and assertiveness in
the classroom:

For the class or group

  • Negotiate ground rules.
  • Set goals and assessment criteria.
  • Set learning objectives.
  • Set specific behaviour objectives.

For you

  • Be authoritative – in your speech and in your body language.
  • Fake it until you make it – be absolutely confident and in control even if you don’t feel it.
  • Get out of the habit of sitting behind the desk.

Try the PEP Approach

  • Proximity: Walk around the classroom, stand by a pupil that may be about to misbehave. Stand a “little too close for comfort” but don’t invade personal space. This is a difficult judgement, sometimes. You don’t want to come over as aggressive or intimidating.
  • Eye contact: holding eye contact expresses dominance. What you say will be taken more seriously if you can maintain eye contact before, during and after speaking.
  • Posing questions: Rather than telling a student off, pose a question, such as “Why have you not started your work?
    These actions are often more effective and far less exhausting than getting angry or shouting and will make you appear in control (even if you do not feel it).


Try the CASPER Approach

  • Calm – Always try to appear calm, even if you are not feeling calm. The first step in a difficult situation is to create thinking time, taking a deep breath.
  • Assertive  – Have a good eye contact. State your needs clearly and use “I” statements, eg: “I want . . .”; “I need . . .”
  • Status Preservation – Students operate within a peer group. When correcting behaviour always be aware of this and use private rather than public reprimands.
  • Empathy – Show empathy and avoid challenging questions such as “What do you think you are doing?”
  • Respect – Model appropriate behaviour to reinforce your expectations. Always show your students respect, even if they are disrespectful.

group hand fist bump

Behaviour Improvement

How do you increase cooperation and collaboration?
We all know how challenging it can be to cooperative with badly behaved pupils. Sometimes a cycle can develop between the teacher and the students that makes
things even worse: the pupils misbehave more, you dislike them more, you are less
positive and friendly, they dislike you and your classes more, they disrupt more
and so it goes on. The cycle needs to be broken.
The next time you have a class with a particularly difficult student or a challenging group, why not try the following:

              First  . . .

Try focusing on putting negotiated and clear rules in place. This will often
require a great deal of emotional generosity and patience or restraint! The main aims are to be more positive, friendly and fair.

            Then . . .
1. Meet and greet students by the door. Get off to a good start.
2. Catch them doing the right thing and comment positively in private. A lot of
inappropriate behaviour is attention seeking.
3. Put the student in “intensive care!” No it’s not what you think! Smile, use their
name positively, ask for their opinion, make a point at looking at their work, comment favourably about genuine effort or achievement. Talk to them, be patient and helpful, have high expectations and keep calm. Show that you value them. But don’t overdo it! Be fair, use this approach with your well-behaved students as well.
4. Learn their names. This is especially valuable when you are new to a school.
5. Engage students in an informal way. Let them know you don’t just see them as students but as individuals with interests, hobbies, and lives outside of school.
6. Use eye contact and proximity.
7. Collaborate and problem solve together. What’s the problem here? What can we do about this?
8. Build team and group work.
9. Have high expectations and let them know what those are.
10. Develop flexible responses and teaching styles.
11. Give responsibilities to particular students.
12. Avoid sarcasm. What you might think is light may be damaging your teacher- student relationship.
13. Check for understanding, reinforce learning goals and expectations.
14. Be a good role model for your students by acting in the way that you want them to behave.

3. Disciplinary Interventions

Think back again to how you respond to inappropriate behaviour in the classroom.

  • Are you reactive?
  • Do you wait for problems to happen and then respond?
  • Are you consistent?
  • Are you fair?

A proactive approach to improving behaviour is usually much more effective. Remember managing behaviour is not just about responding to inappropriate behaviour. It is about creating conditions that encourage positive actions.

Try the following approaches:

  • Remind students of the rules before activities take place.
  • Reinforce appropriate behaviour. Use tokens and symbols which can be used
    for privileges.
  • Encourage students to self-assess their behaviour and award themselves appropriate tokens/points.
  • Use individual, group and whole class rewards. To receive these, there needs
    to be very clear success criteria.
  • Mild punishments: what’s important is the consistency and fairness of the punishment. Its success is also dependent on the assertiveness in which it is given. It means being firm, unemotional, unapologetic and confident. It does not mean being hostile or aggressive.

At a Glance: Top Tips For Managing Student Behaviour

  • Learn names quickly and with correct pronunciation
  • Use a seating plan
  • Greet at the door
  • Be positive (and don’t take it personally)
  • Set clear rules for behaviour
  • Follow up everything – that means EVERYTHING – no matter how small.
  • Keep your cool
  • Follow the CASPER approach.

4. Mental Set

Although, you are not solely responsible for improving student behavior, improving your attitude to classroom management can have dramatic effects. There are two parts to this:


This ‘Withitness’ is a term frst used by Kounin (1970) meaning an awareness
of what is going on in all areas of your classroom and having a quick response
to actual and possible disruptions. It’s a “nip in the bud” approach that stops
inappropriate behaviour spreading. Think about how you will respond to
disruption and not letting your emotions lead the way.

Withitness Strategies

  • Invest time getting to know your classroom and students.
  • Understand the physical, social and psychological settings that you
    and your students find themselves.
  • Find out where the “hot spots” are. Run a behaviour audit or make this
    part of classroom observation.
  • Position yourself so you can scan regularly and make eye contact with as
    many of the class as you can.
  • Intervene promptly. Make your students know straight away, or even before
    it happens that their disruptive behaviour will not be tolerated.
  • Combine eye contact and proximity approaches as mentioned earlier. Early identification and intervention is an essential factor in successful behaviour management.
  • Use of names combined with eye contact and a sharp tone.
  • Use a silent and still approach. Stop what you are doing and remain silent.
    Maintain eye contact until you get the response you want, then continue.
  • Non-verbal reminders and commands. These are quite traditional but are still effective e.g. finger to lips to ask for silence, standing straight with hands on hips to signal displeasure, clicking fingers to signal “stop it”.
  • Be organised. Prepare your classroom and have materials ready!
  • Use reminders and warnings about rules before an activity.
  • Walk about with plenty of eye contact.

Emotional Objectivity

It is not always easy to remember, but bad behaviour is not an attack on you. It is not personal. If you do see it as something personal, you are more likely to get angry, upset, depressed or resentful. Try to remain unemotional. This does not mean being distant. You should be alert and business like, but you are protecting yourself and your emotional wellbeing.

Understand Yourself

Try not to show anger or frustration, you’ll look and feel more in control.
Remember what upset you, so that you recognise the situation next time. Practice. Practice. Practice!

Students Have Their Own Issues

Remember that your pustudents may well be dealing with difficulties or
issues themselves that may be causing the inappropriate behaviour.

Seek Support – You Have Allies

You do not need to suffer inappropriate behaviour alone. You can get support
from within your school but it is important to recognise your own feelings. Talk things over with a friend, or colleague, your head of department or senior management team.

The support available from each school will differ so please get to know where and when to seek support.

This is an approach I have used for many years with amendments here and there. It is not easy at all but with perseverance, enthusiasm and commitment, you will get it right.  I have also worked with RTS – Respect; Trust and Support – with my students:

  • I Respect them,
  • I Trust them too and
  • I value their Support.

Good luck in all your endeavours.

As of old: Be EMPOWERED and EXCEL




Please note the differences:

HOMOPHONES are words that sound the same but have different meanings.

wait (the verb) and weight (how heavy something is)
they’re (they are) and their (belonging to them) and there (adverb of place)

HOMONYMS are a kind of homophone, words that are written and said the same way but have different meanings.

Examples of HOMONYMS are:

  • book           – something we read and . . .
  • book           – to schedule something.
  • Spring        – the season and . . .
  • spring         – to jump up.
  • club            – somewhere to dance and . . .
  • club            – large, heavy object that people get hit with.

HOMOGRAPHS are words that are written the same way, but pronounced differently.

Examples of HOMOGRAPHS include:

  • to wind a clock but blowing wind.
  • rose, the flower and rose, past tense of the verb to rise.
  • book – something we read and book – to schedule something

pexels-photo-256417.jpegIncluded here are sets of commonly used and sometimes confused sets of HOMOPHONES. To help you improve spelling skills, for each word listed, I have included the most common meanings focusing on:

  • part of speech (sometimes)
  • a very brief definition
  • a sentence to strengthen your understanding of the homophone word/s.

Please note that the following scenarios are the most commonly used cases; but as is quite common in our language, there are always exceptions!

1. its/it’s

  • Its means belonging to it: The cat chased its tail.
  • It’s means it is: It’s very hot in Florida in August!

2. passed/past

  • Passed is the past tense of to proceed without pause: I passed the old school on the way to my grandmother’s house.
  • Past means no longer current or over: Dinosaurs roamed the earth in the past.

3. quiet/quite/quit

  • Quiet means an absence of noise: The students were all quiet.
  • Quite means entirely or completely: That is not quite the right thing to do.
  • Quit means to stop, especially a job: He quit after three months.

4. forbear/forebear

  • Forbear is to refrain, abstain, desist: Tad could not forbear a smile.
  • Forebear is an ancestor: A generation of my forebears have lived here.

5. freeze/frieze

  • Freeze is to turn to ice: The water will freeze over night.
  • Frieze is a decoration along a wall: It was the best frieze ever.

6. grisly/grizzly

  • Grisly is gruesome, revolting: We were shocked by the grisly crimes.
  • Grizzly is a type of bear: The grizzly bear was angry.

7. hoard/horde

  • Hoard is a store, a collection: Pearl came back to rescue her little hoard of gold. 
  • Horde is a large crowd of people: There was a horde of rugby fans.

8. imply/infer

  • Imply is to suggest indirectly: Do you imply passing by or not?
  • Infer is to draw a conclusion: From the data provided, we can infer that all is not well.

9. loath/loathe

  • Loath is being reluctant, unwilling: I was loath to leave.
  • Loathe is to hate, intense dislike: She loathed him on sight. 

10. militate/mitigate

  •  Militate is to be a powerful factor against: These arguments will militate against us coming together.
  • Mitigate is to make less severe, serious: The drainage schemes have helped to mitigate this problem. 

11. pour/pore

  • Pour is to flow or cause to flow: The water poured off the roof.
  • Pore is a tiny opening, a hole; to study something closely

12. practice/practise

  •  Practice is the use of an idea or method; the work or business of a doctor, dentist, etc.
  • Practise is to do something repeatedly to gain skill; to do something regularly

13. prescribe/proscribe

  • Prescribe is to authorize use of medicine; to order authoritatively: Her doctor prescribed sleeping tablets.
  • Proscribe is to officially forbid something: Strikes remain proscribed in the armed forces.

14. principal/principle

  • Principal is the most important; the head of a school: The principal ideas were there for all to talk about.
  • Principle is a fundamental rule or belief: The basic principles of justice are important for us all.

15. stationary/stationery

  • Stationary means unmoving: The bus was stationary.
  • Stationery refers to writing materials, eg: papers, pens, eraser, etc: We went to the stationery shop.

ALWAYS make it a habit to edit your work to avoid committing the HOMOPHONES mistakes.

Good luck in all your endeavours.

As of old: Be EMPOWERED and EXCEL




Please note the difference between HOMOPHONES and HOMOGRAPHS:

HOMOPHONES are words that sound the same but have different meanings. Fo example, . . .

  • wait (the verb) and weight (how heavy something is)
  • they’re (they are) and their (belonging to them) and there (adverb of place)

HOMOGRAPHS are words that are written the same way, but pronounced differently.

Examples of HOMOGRAPHS include:

  • to wind a clock but blowing wind.
  • rose, the flower and rose, past tense of the verb to rise.
  • book – something we read and book – to schedule something.

Included here are sets of commonly used and sometimes confused sets of homophones. To help you improve spelling skills, for each word listed, I have included the most common meanings focusing on:

  • part of speech (sometimes)
  • a very brief definition
  • a sentence to further your understanding of the homophone word/s.

pexels-photo.jpgPlease note that the following scenarios are the most commonly used cases; but as is quite common in our language, there are always exceptions!

1. write/right/rite

  • right (adj.) means correct: The student gave the right answer to the math question.
  • write (v.) is to make letters: Please write you name at the top of the page.
  • rite (n) means a religious social custom or solemn ceremony or act: The religious rites were strictly followed.

2. road/rode/rod

  • road (n.) is a driving surface: She had difficulties keeping her car on the slippery road.
  • rode (v.) is past tense of ride: We rode the bus for thirty minutes to get across town.
  • rod (n) is a thin straight bar of wood or metal: The walls were reinforced with steel rods.

 3. sail/sale

  • sail (v.) is to travel in a boat: We plan to sail across the bay.
  • sale (n.) is a deal or transaction: The store had a special sale on blue jeans.

 4. scene/seen

  • scene (n.) is the place where an event occurs: A criminal sometimes returns to the scene of the crime.
  • seen (v.) is past participle of see: I’ve never seen so many flowers!

 5. soar/sore

  • soar (v.) is to fly: An eagle can soar higher than many other birds.
  • sore (adj.) means painful: My sprained knee is very sore.

 6. sole/soul

  • sole (adj.) means only: My dad was the sole survivor of the crash.
  • sole (n.) is the bottom part of a foot or shoe: There’s a hole in the sole of my old boot.
  • soul (n.) is the spiritual part, or character, of a person: Those old hymns always comfort my soul.

7. tail/tale

  • tail (n.) is the rear part of an animal’s body: My dog wags its tail when he’s happy.
  • tale (n.) is a story: One popular fairy tale is about a giant, a beanstalk and a boy named Jack.

8. threw/through

  • threw (v.) is the past tense of throw: The kids threw the stones into the stream.
  • through (prep.) means movement from one side to, or past, the other side: Let’s walk all the way through the dark tunnel together.

9. to/too/two

  • to (prep.) means toward: We drove to the theatre.
  • too (adv.) means also: Jimmy likes pizza, too.
  • two (n.) is a symbol for 1 plus 1: Susan spun a two in the board game.

10. waist/waste

  • waist (n.) is the middle of the body: The belt was too large for her small waist.
  • waste (n.) is the discarded material: The factory’s waste products were dumped in the landfill.

11. weak/week/wick

  • weak (adj.) means not strong: The young boy was too weak to lift the box of books.
  • week (n.) is a seven-day period: The worker went on vacation for one week.
  • wick (n) is a piece of string in the centre of a candle.

 12. who’s/whose

  • who’s (contr.) is short for who is or who has: Who’s been drinking my soda?
  • whose (pron.) is the possessive form of who: Does anyone know whose coat is this one?

13. your/your’re

  • your (pron.) is the possessive form of you: It’s your turn to go first.
  • you’re (contr.) is the short form of you are: You’re the person I want to hire.

14. faint/feint

  • faint means temporarily losing consciousness and the adjective . . .
  • faint (adj) means lacking in brightness: Tad’s writing is too faint.
  • A feint is a false attack made to distract the opponent from an even more fatal blow: It was just a brief feint on the opponent’s face.

15. hole/whole/hall

  • A hole is an empty place or opening: A hole opened up in the backyard.
  • Whole means complete or entire: I ate the whole pie.
  • hall (n) is the room or space used for meetings, concerts or other events.

ALWAYS make it a habit to edit your work to avoid committing the HOMOPHONES mistakes.

writing-notes-idea-conference.jpgGood luck in all your endeavours.

As of old: Be EMPOWERED and EXCEL!!


Please note the difference between HOMOPHONES and HOMONYMS:

HOMOPHONES are words that sound the same but have different meanings.

  • wait (the verb) and weight (how heavy something is)
  • they’re (they are) and their (belonging to them) and there (adverb of place)

HOMONYMS are a kind of homophone, words that are written and said the same way but have different meanings.

Examples of HOMONYMS are:

  • book           – something we read and . . .
  • book           – to schedule something.
  • Spring        – the season and . . .
  • spring         – to jump up.

pexels-photo-416322.jpegTo help you improve spelling skills, for each word listed, I have included the most common meanings focusing on:

  • part of speech (sometimes)
  • a very brief definition
  • a sentence to test your understanding of the homophone word/s.

Please note that the following scenarios are the most commonly used cases; but as is quite common in our language, there are always exceptions!

1. than/then

  • Use than for comparisons; eg: Tad is much taller than his brother.
  • Use then to indicate passage of time, or when; eg: We went to the park in the morning, and then we left to pick up lunch.

2. to/too/two

  • To can be a preposition; eg: We are going to the park.
  • Too is an adverb that can mean excessively (too much) when it precedes an adjective or adverb; eg: I ate too much ice cream for dessert.
  • Too is a synonym for also; eg: I ate too much ice cream for dessert, too.
  • Two is a number; eg: Shona ate two pieces of pie.

3. you’re/ your

  • You’re is a contraction for you are; eg: You’re going to absolutely love this new recipe.
  • Your is a pronoun; eg: Please bring your books to class with you tomorrow.

4. fair/fare

  • fair (adj.) means just, proper under the rules, or ample; eg: The judge made a fair decision.
  • fare (n.) means money paid to ride in a bus, taxi or other vehicle; eg: He paid his fare when he got on the bus. OR
  • Used as a verb, fare means to get by, perform; eg: She fared well on the job interview.

5. flew/flu/flue

  • flew (v.) past tense of fly; eg: The bird flew past my window.
  • flu (n.) short for influenza; eg: Sam missed three days of work because he had the flu.
  • flue (n.) passage for smoke in a chimney; eg: The chimney flue needs to be cleaned regularly.

6. heal/heel/he’ll

  • heal means to make healthy; eg: Extra rest and fluids will help to heal your sickness.
  • heel is the back part of the foot; eg. Place your heel firmly into the boot.
  • he’ll (contr.) he will; eg: He’ll be happy when he comes.

 7. lone/loan

  • A loan is money lent; eg: The car loan was for $5,000.
  • Used as a verb, loan means to lend something; eg: Can you please loan me enough money for lunch?
  • lone means single, only; eg: The truck driver was the lone customer at the all-night diner.

8. male/mail

  • mail are items sent in the postal system; eg: I received six letters today in the mail.

Used as a verb, mail means to send something by mail or e-mail; eg: She will mail her car payment today.

  • male (n.) a boy or man; eg: There were ten male passengers on the train.

Used as an adjective, male means related to a man or boy; eg: I heard a male voice on the telephone.

 9. main/mane

  • main (adj.) means most important; eg:The speaker’s main point was that we can all fight poverty.
  • mane (n.) is the long hair on the neck of an animal; eg: Shona hung on to the horse’s mane when it started galloping.

10. meat/meet

  • meat is edible flesh from an animal; eg: We eat meat nearly every night for dinner.
  • meet is to get together; eg: Let’s meet for coffee tomorrow morning.

Used as a noun, meet is a sports competition; eg: Athletes from ten schools will compete at the track meet.

 11. pail/pale

  • A pail is a bucket; eg: That pail holds five gallons of paint.
  • Being pale means lacking color; eg: The sick child’s face was very pale.

 12. pain/pane

  • pain is physical distress; eg: Her back pain prevented her from bending over.
  • pane is section of a window; eg: The window pane was covered with frost.

13. passed/past

  • passed is the past tense of pass; eg: The teenager finally passed his driving test.
  • past means later, or in a time gone by; eg: Her financial worries are now all in the past.

14. patience/patients

  •  patience is the ability to wait; eg: The kindergarten teacher’s patience is remarkable.
  • patients are people under the care of a doctor; eg: Five patients were waiting to see the doctor.

 15. raise/raze

  • To raise is to build up; eg: Let’s raise the sign a bit higher so it can be read more easily.
  • To raze is to tear down; eg: The city plans to raze the vacant building.

ALWAYS make it a habit to edit your work to avoid committing the HOMOPHONES mistakes.

Good luck in all your endeavours.

As of old: Be EMPOWERED and EXCEL!!


Please note the difference:

HOMOPHONES are words that sound the same but have different meanings, eg:

  • wait (the verb) and weight (how heavy something is)

HOMONYMS are a kind of homophone words that are written and said the same way but have different meanings.

Examples of HOMONYMS are:

  • club            – somewhere to dance and . . .
  • club            – large, heavy object that people get hit with.
  • rock           – a type of music and . . .
  • rock            – made of stone.

HOMOGRAPHS are words that are written the same way, but pronounced differently.

Examples of HOMOGRAPHS include:

  • to wind a clock but blowing wind.
  • rose, the flower and rose, past tense of the verb to rise.
  • book is something we read and book is to schedule something.

pexels-photo.jpgTo help you improve spelling skills for each word listed below, I have included the most homophone common meanings focusing on:

  • part of speech (sometimes)
  • a very brief definition
  • a sentence to test your understanding of the homophone word/s.

Please note that the following scenarios are the most commonly used cases; but as is quite common in our language, there are always exceptions!

  1. which/witch/wich

  • Use which as a pronoun when referring to things or animals.
  • Use witch to mean a scary or nasty person.
  • Wich is to do with minerals, salt works; a salt producing town.

Using the correct use of which/witch/wich, fill in the sentences:

  1. Tad wore his favorite brown shoes, . . . he received as a birthday gift.
  2. The Halloween . . . decorations must finally come down off of the wall!

2. principle/principal

  • Use principle as a noun meaning a basic truth or law.
  • Use principal as a noun meaning the head of a school or organization, or a sum of money.

 Using the correct use of principle/principal, fill in the sentences:

  1. Many important life . . . are learned in kindergarten.
  2. The . . . is a well-respected member of the community.

3. stationary/stationery

  • Stationary means unmoving.
  • Stationery refers to writing materials, eg: pens, books, pencils, etc

Using the correct use of stationary/stationery, fill in the sentences:

  1. The revolving door remained . . . because Shona was pushing on it the wrong way.
  2. Tad printed his résumé on his best . . . .

4. rain/reign/rein

  • rain (n.) precipitation; (v.) drizzle, shower.
  • reign (n.) time in power; (v.) to rule.
  • rein (n.) a strap to control an animal.

 Using the correct use of rain/reign/rein, fill in the sentences:

  1. The . . . poured down all day.
  2. The king’s . . . was very brief.
  3. Pull on the . . . when you want the horse to stop.

5. stair/stare

  • stair (n.) step.
  • stare (v.) to look intently in one place.

Using the correct use of stair/stare, fill in the sentences:

  1. The bottom . . . is broken, so please be careful when you go down.
  2. I couldn’t help but . . . at the man as he came down to us.

6. main/mane

  • main (adj.) most important.
  • mane (n.) long hair on the neck of an animal.

 Using the correct use of main/mane, fill in the sentences:

  1. The speaker’s . . . point was that we can all fight poverty.
  2. The little girl hung on to the horse’s . . . when it started galloping.

7. stake/steak

  • stake (n.) a thin pointed stick or post that is driven into the ground; mark off.
  • steak (n.) a piece of meat or fish.

 Using the correct use of stake/steak, fill in the sentences:

  1. Since we were missing a . . . , we couldn’t finish putting up the tent.
  2. He ordered a sirloin . . . and baked potato.

8. steal/steel

  • steal (v.) to take something without permission.
  • steel (n.) a strong metal made of iron and carbon.

 Using the correct use of steal/steel, fill in the sentences:

  1. It is not good to . . . money from anyone.
  2. Many buildings are constructed with . . . frames.

 9. imminent/eminent/immanent

  • imminent is something likely to happen.
  • Eminent can refer to a person of high rank or repute or anything that noticeably pokes out like “an eminent nose.”
  • immanent is an inherent or inborn; ingrained, built-in.

 Using the correct use of imminent/eminent/immanent, fill in the sentences:

  1. The rainy season is . . .
  2. Kofi Annan was an . . . person in resolving many conflicts.
  3. The protection of human rights is . . . to many governments around the world.

10. exercise/exorcise

  • Exercise is a physical activity; to do physical activity.
  • Exorcise is to drive out an evil spirit

 Using the correct use of exercise/exorcise, fill in the sentences:

  1. They . . . the troublesome spirit.
  2. Ted took the . . . seriously.

11. insolate/insulate

  • Insolate refers to an exposure to the sun’s rays.
  • Insulate involves using various materials to prevent the leakage of heat.
  • NOTICE: Insolate to get warm and insulate to stay warm!

Using the correct use of insolate/insulate, fill in the sentences:

  1. The . . . paper may turn red when exposed to the sun.
  2. We always . . . and draught proof our caravan before winter begins.

 12. tortuous/torturous

  • tortuous comes from the Latin tortu meaning full of twists and turns.
  • torturous pertaining to the cause or experience of extreme pain.

 Using the correct use of tortuous/torture, fill in the sentences:

  1. Peal found the route remote and . . . .
  2. We had a . . . five days of boot camp.

13. foreword/forward

  • Foreword is an introduction to a book.
  • Forward is onwards, ahead.

 Using the correct use of foreword/forward, fill in the sentences:

  1. Dr Giddings gave a . . to my book.
  2. It’s will be raining next week, so the baseball game will be moved . . .

14. flaunt/flout

  • Flaunt is to display ostentatiously; show off.
  • Flout is to disregard a rule.

 Using the correct use of flaunt/flout, fill in the sentences:

    1. The young man constantly . . . his riches.
    2. The advertising code is being openly . . ..

15. flounder/founder

  • Flounder is to move clumsily; to have difficulty doing something.
  • Founder is to fail; a person who establishes.

Using the correct use of flounder/founder, fill in the sentences:

  1. The soldiers . . .  about in the mud.
  2. He is the . . . of a popular website.

So, how did you fair?

ANSWERS: #1. a) which b) witch #2. a) principles b) principal #3. a) stationary   b) stationery #4. a) rain b) reign c) reins; #5 a) stair b) stare; #6 a) main b) mane; #7 a)stake b) steak #8 a) steal b) steel #9 a) imminent   b) eminent c) immament  #10 a) exorcise b) exercise  #11 a) insolate(d) b) insulate  #12 a) tortuous  b) torturous  #13 a) foreword b) forward   #14 a) flaunted  b) flouted  #15 a) floundered b) founder

ALWAYS make it a habit to edit your work to avoid committing the HOMOPHONES mistakes.

As of old: Be EMPOWERED and EXCEL!!


HOMOPHONES are two or more words that sound alike, but have different meanings or spellings.

In the sentence below, for example, every word is spelled correctly but three words are the wrong words, and even spellchecker will not flag even one of them.

Can you spot the homophones in the sentence below?

I herd the reign ruined there picnic.

 One great way to improve spelling skills is to learn the correct spellings and meanings of common sets of homophones.

A large percentage of spelling errors at High School are actually homophone usage errors.

Written correctly, the sentence should, of course, read:

 I heard the rain ruined their picnic.

Included here are sets of commonly used and sometimes confused sets of homophones. To help you improve spelling skills, for each word listed, I have included the most common meanings focusing on:

  • part of speech (sometimes)
  • a very brief definition
  • a sentence to test your understanding of the homophone word/s. 

pexels-photo-416322.jpegPlease note that the following scenarios are the most commonly used cases; but as is quite common in our language, there are always exceptions!

1. defuse/diffuse

  • Diffuse is to spread over a wide area; lacking clarity
  • Defuse is to make a situation less tense

Using the correct use of defuse/diffuse, fill in the sentences:

  1. Mr Jones . . . the prevailing tension among the villagers.
  2. The . . . community centred around the church.

2. desert/dessert

  • Desert is a waterless, empty area; to abandon someone.
  • Dessert is the sweet course of a meal.

 Using the correct use of desert/dessert, fill in the sentences:

  1. How did that car get over the Egyptian . . . .
  2. They enjoyed their . . .  after the main meal.

3. discreet/discrete

  • Discreet means being careful not to attract attention.
  • Discrete means separate and distinct.

Using the correct use of discreet/discrete, fill in the sentences:

  1. We made some . . . inquiries about the issue.
  2. Speech sounds are produced as a continuous sound signal rather than . . . units.

 4. disinterested/uninterested

  • Disinterested means impartial; unbiased, uninvolved.
  • Uninterested means bored or not wanting to be involved with something:

Using the correct use of disinterested/uninterested, fill in the sentences:

  1. A panel of . . . judges who had never met the contestants before judged the singing contest.
  2. Marwa was . . . in attending Hilda’s singing class.

5. die/dye

  • Die means to pass away; dying could also mean you are eager for something.
  • Dye (n.) coloring.

 Using the correct use of die/dye, fill in the sentences:

  1. The animal will . . . without proper nourishment.
  2. We used four kinds of . . . to color our Easter eggs.

6. does/dose

  • Does is a form of do.
  • Dose is quantity of medicine.

Using the correct use of does/dose, fill in the sentences:

  1. It . .  no good to complain.
  2. Take a . . . of aspirin for your headache.

7. here/hear

  • Use here as an adverb to indicate location.
  • Use hear as a verb to indicate listening.

 Using the correct use of hear/here, fill in the sentences:

  1. Please come back . . . and put your shoes away!
  2. Can you . . . the birds’ beautiful singing outside?

8. lie/lay

  • Use lie to indicate the act of reclining:
  • Use lay to indicate the placement of something:

Lay is a transitive verb, which means it always needs an object! Something is always being put down; lie, on the other hand, will never have an object because it is an intransitive verb.


  • to lie: lie(s), lay, lain, lying
  • to lay: lay(s), laid, laid, laying

Using the correct use of lie/lay, fill in the sentences:

  1. I am tired just watching the dog . .  in the warm sunlight.
  2. Please . . . the paper on the table.

9. emigrate/immigrate

  • Emigrate means to move away from a city or country to live somewhere else.
  • Immigrate means to move into a country from somewhere else.

Using the correct use of emigrate/immigrate, fill in the sentences:

  1. Pearl’s grandfather . . .  from Canada sixty years ago.
  2. Tad’s sister . . . to Ireland in 2004.

 10. e.g./i.e.

These two Latin abbreviations are often mixed up, but e.g. means “for example,” while i.e. means “that is.”

11. empathy/sympathy

  • Empathy is the ability to understand another person’s perspective or feelings.
  • Sympathy is a feeling of sorrow for someone else’s suffering.
  • A sympathizer is someone who agrees with a particular ideal or cause.

 Using the correct use of empathy/sympathy, fill in the sentences:

  1. My . . . for Liz is fairly limited.
  2. She has a higher level of . . . in helping others.

 12. loose/lose/lost

  • Loose is usually an adjective:
  • Lose is always a verb. It means to misplace something or to be unvictorious in a game or contest.
  • Lost is the past tense of lose.

Using the correct use of loose/lose/lost, fill in the sentences:

  1. Nancy was careful not to . . . her ticket.
  2. Peter discovered that the cows were . . . .

13. it’s/its

  • It’s is the contraction for it is.
  • Its is the possessive form (“possessive” means belongs to) of it.

 Using the correct use of it’s/its, fill in the sentences:

  1. The cat is licking . . . paws.
  2. . . . raining today, so the baseball game will be cancelled.

14. weather/whether

  • Use weather when referring to the state of the atmosphere:
  • Use whether as a conjunction to introduce choices:

 Using the correct use of weather/whether fill in the sentences:

  1. The constantly changing springtime . . . is driving us crazy.
  2. Please tell us . . . you would prefer steak or salmon for dinner.

NB: There is no such word as wheather!

15. there/their/they’re

  • their (pron.) belong to them;
  • there (adv.) at that place;
  • they’re is the contraction for they are.

 Using the correct use of there/their/they’re, fill in the sentences:

  1. . . . house is always clean and tidy.
  2. Please put the groceries over . . . .
  3. . . . going to Paris for vacation.

So, how did you fair?

ANSWERS: #1. a) defused b) diffuse; #2. a) desert b) dessert #3. a) discreet b) discrete #4. a) disinterested b) uninterested; #5 a) die b) dye; #6 a) does b) dose  #7 a) here b) hear   #8 a) lie b) lay   #9 a) emigrated  b) immigrated   #11 a) sympathy b) empathy  #12 a) lose   b) lose/lost  #13 a) its   b) It’s   #14 a) weather   b) whether   #15 a) Their b) there c) They’re

ALWAYS make it a habit to edit your work to avoid committing the above mistakes.

As of old: Be EMPOWERED and EXCEL!!